The Bearing is one of the easiest important machine elements of Mechanical. It is used to decrease the unwanted vibration of a shaft. It is used in industries, household items, and medical equipment. So I discuss full details about it. I give knowledge that will help buy the right components. This information is also helpful for mechanical engineering students for studies.
Here I explain its definition, types, function, components, material and it’s application. After reading the content you never go to the other side because you solve your quarries in it.
So before explaining full details about bearing first know what is bearing?
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What is Bearing?
The Bearing is one of the easiest important machine elements. The bearing prohibits relative motion to the desired motion. It is created in the 19th century. It was made by hand. It decreases friction between moving parts of a machine. It is provided for free linear movement of the moving part. Also free rotation around a fixed axis. It is divided according to the type of operation. Rotary bearings carry rotating components. Such as shafts within mechanical systems. This is best for axial and radial loads.
The function of Bearing :
There are 3 functions
It reduces friction between the rotating part and the moving part.
It supports the rotating part of the machine.
It carries radial & thrust/axial load
Bearing Components :
It usually consists of the following components:
Inner ring& outer ring with raceways:
The inner and outer rings are usually created from chrome alloy steel. This material has the essential hardness and purity both important factors. This material has a high load rating and a long service life.
The raceways are hardened, ground, and honed.
Special materials such as ceramic and plastics are used. The plastics material cannot withstand high temperatures. They are lighter than steel. It creates them invaluable in sectors. Such as the automotive industry.
Types of Bearing :
Here I explain some types of bearing below
- Rolling element
It is always called a sliding or slide bearing. It consists only of the surface. Here rolling elements are not used.
In manufacture time the creator mark that something. The material must be durable. It is also resistant to corrosion. The material must be capable of resisting at a higher temperature.
Types of Plain Bearing:
Rolling Element bearing:
Here the load is carried out by positioning rolling elements inside the races. Races are the two rings of bearing.
Rolling elements like cylindrical rollers, spherical rollers, rapper rollers, balls.
Types of Rolling element bearing:
The gap between the races is kept with the help of the ball. The width of the ball bearing is always less than the diameter of the ball.
Now, it is classified into 5 types:
Single row ball bearing:
Here balls are arranged in an identical manner in one row.
Double row ball bearings:
It has two rows of balls. It has two grooves cut.
Angular contact Balls bearing:
It is manufactured to bear angular load as well as axial loads.
Thrust ball bearing:
If anywhere handle vertical thrust load this bearing used. Horizontal thrust load can also be handled with it.
Self-aligned ball bearings:
They are able of resisting journal loads.
Roller bearing :
It has a higher capacity of the load than the ball bearing. It has a high chance of failure if lubricant is absent.
Now roller bearing is classified into five types:
Cylindrical roller bearing:
In this type cylindrical rollers are used. It has a higher diameter than the length.
It is an arrangement like elliptical gears. In this type smaller satellite gears are present. It performs its revolution around the center of bearing. It increases efficiency as well as reduces sliding friction. It is very challenging to manufacture.
Spherical Roller bearing:
It carries an inner ring, outer ring, cages, and spherical rollers. This is manufactured by SKF, NTN company. It is used in gearbox, pumps, and wind turbines.
Needle roller bearing:
It is designed for long and thin cylindrical rollers. It is manufactured shape of needles. They can withstand a large load due to the large surface area in contact with the races. It is used in pumps, compressors.
CARB Toroidal roller bearing:
It was invented by Mangukellstrom in 1995. Here, its radius of curvature is much larger than its spherical radius.
Jewel bearing :
The metal spindle is turned into a jewel-lined pivot hole. It is the main factor of this bearing. The advantages are their small weight as well as the size and low friction. It works without any lubrication. It is not recommended to use it If the load is not axial. Synthetic material is used to manufacture. Its size may be extended up to 10 mm. It handles 500 gm of weight. It is used in mechanical watches, turbines, measuring instruments. Ex – gyroscopes, galvanometers, dial indicators, etc.
Fluid Bearing :
It is a special type. There is no sliding friction and no sliding elements used. It accepts load with the help of fluid.
Now it is classified into 2 types
It is used where the part of the shaft rests on the fluid. It is used in hydroelectric generators, electric motors, cooling pumps, etc.
Hydrostatic can handle heavy loads at low speeds. They are more durable. Thus they have a longer life. It gives very low friction.
Magnetic bearing :
To support the load the phenomenon of magnetic levitation is used in it. It is used in compressors, turbines, pumps, motors, magnetic bearings used.
Now magnetic bearing classified into 2 types
Flexure bearing :
A flexible element is used . It is suitable for a specific degree of freedom. Due to the degree of freedom flexible elements bear the load.
Choose the Right Bearing Components and Materials :
In an industrial platform choosing the right components is very important. It is necessary to reduce costs and increase output. It comes from the bearing supplier in Singapore. Here making considerations for industrial use. There is a change of seeing reduced efficiency. It needless downtime.
To avoid damage from incorrect components the following considerations should be mentioned:
The bearing is also able to handle the expected pressure and weight. The load is radial, axial load, and combined load to function.
To operate a machine at high speed we need speeds dedicated bearing. It can give extra force to increase motion.
It requires the right space to enable thermal expansion. It arising frictional heat. The attachment can increase friction without space contact between the ball bearing. It can increase thermal conductivity between components.
Sealing is important to maintaining lubrication levels. It decreases debris within it.
The ball and roller bearing have required maintenance. It exceeds the maintenance program in operation. It can be important to avoid expensive downtime. It is held by balancing the cost and live performance.
The Different Types of Bearing Materials :
Different types of material are used for industrial purposes. It is manufactured with some other material. Commonly, steel material is used as the main component to create roller and ball bearings. Its roller element and rings are also in steel material.
There are some materials given below :
Carbon Steel :
Carbon element of up to 2.1% is used to manufacture. It becomes less ductile. It has a lower melting point. It can not operate large loads or at high speed. Carbon steel is also called commercial grade. Carbon steel is not stainless steel.
It is the cheapest material to manufacture. It is suitable for use. In this type, carbon is used. It is used in locks, bikes, etc.
The chrome steel material is affordable costs. It has a quieter operating volume and a high hardness level. It is high hardness, high load capacity, affordable cost. It needs lubrication from time to time. It is not resistant to corrosion. It is used in vibrating motors, food processing machines, and linear motion components.
For industrial purposes, stainless steel bearing is suitable for use. In this type low amount of carbon is used than carbon. It has high chromium quantity than chrome steel.
It is durable, resistant to corrosion, softer, effective, and strong. Its temperature is flexible. It has a negative point. It has heavier composition, lubrication needed, and higher cost. It is used in manufacturing, instrumentation, and industries.
It is manufactured to produce durable bearings. It has two rings of ceramic and fluorine resin retainer. This material is chosen over stainless steel. It varies due to the non-magnetic requirements of the machinery.
This type of material is high in hardness, durable, lightweight, high-temperature resistance. It requires low maintenance and does not need lubrication.
So many nonmetallic materials are used to create ball and roller bearing. It has lightweight than the other materials. Plastic and polymers material is used to manufacture. It includes nylon, silicone nitrate, phenolic, Teflon, nitrite rubber, etc.
It has low friction and no lubrication is needed. It has a lightweight body with high strength, corrosion resistance. It is used in machines, water turbines, household applications, filming gear, and instruments.
It is predicted to perform a required predefined operating condition. It is based on the possible number of rotations a bearing can complete before. it starts showing symptoms of suffering. Such as cracking due to stress.
Ball Bearings application:
It is used in washing machines, Food Processors, Hair Dryers, DVD Players, skateboards.
It is used in pumps, compressors, wind turbines, power tools, chain saws.
It is used in motors, gearbox, steering, and also used in engines.
Tapered roller bearing applications:
It is used in gearbox, motors, propeller shafts, wind turbines.
Roller bearing application:
It is used in gearbox, pumps, wind turbines, casting machines.
Cylindrical roller bearing application:
t is used for petroleum production, power generation, power transmission. It is also used in crushers, motors, gears, drives, machine tools, and pumps.
Needle roller bearing application:
t is used in pumps, compressors, gearbox, 2 stroke engines, 4 stroke engines.
Thrust ball bearing application:
It is used in automotive and aerospace applications. It is also used in the main and tail rotor blade grips of helicopters, car gearboxes, radio antennas,
Plain bearing application:
It is used as a power plant steam turbine, compressors. It is required for operating in critical pipeline applications, ship propeller shafts, etc.
It is one of the easiest important machine elements. It decreases friction between moving parts and rotating parts. Nowadays it is used in every sector. When you buy bearing first choose the right materials, ductility, and hardness. It is necessary for long-lasting. This article is useful for both industrial purposes and mechanical engineering students.